Abstract: Polymers exhibiting molecular recognition can be prepared by imprinting with templates. The selectivity observed is a result of the combination of the accuracy of cavity-shape fitting and the exactness of the arrangement of the functional groups introduced. We have now studied whether the arrangement of the functional groups alone can cause selectivity by virtue of the distinct distance between two such groups. By incorporation of polymerizable bisazomethines with different distances between the functional groups into crosslinked polymers and subsequent removal of the template, polymers bearing two amino groups fixed at a definite distance were obtained. In rebinding experiments with different dialdehydes the polymers showed a strong preference for the template used. The concept was broadened significantly by using for the first time a similar imprinting procedure on a silica surface through the formation of siloxane bonds. With this method it was possible to arrange two amino groups a defined distance apart on a more or less planar surface of silica. In this case, again, rebinding with dialdehydes showed preference for the template used. Even small differences (0.33 nm) in the distance of the groups could be recognized clearly.