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Reference type: Journal
Authors: Möller K, Crescenzi C, Nilsson U
Article Title: Determination of a flame retardant hydrolysis product in human urine by SPE and LC-MS. Comparison of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction with a mixed-mode anion exchanger.
Publication date: 2004
Journal: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Volume: 378
Issue: (1)
Page numbers: 197-204.
DOI: 10.1007/s00216-003-2267-5

Abstract: Diphenyl phosphate is a hydrolysis product and possible metabolite of the flame retardant and plasticiser additive triphenyl phosphate. A molecularly imprinted polymer solid- phase extraction (MISPE) method for extracting diphenyl phosphate from aqueous solutions has been developed and compared with SPE using a commercially available mixed-mode anion exchanger. The imprinted polymer was prepared using 2- vinylpyridine (2-Vpy) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker, and a structural analogue of the analyte as the template molecule. The imprinted polymer was evaluated for use as a SPE sorbent, in tests with both aqueous standards and spiked urine samples, by comparing recovery and breakthrough data obtained using the imprinted form of the polymer and a non-imprinted form (NIP). Extraction from aqueous solutions resulted in more than 80% recovery. Adsorption by the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was non-selective , but selectivity was achieved by selective desorption in the wash steps. Diphenyl phosphate could also be selectively extracted from urine samples, although the urine matrix reduced the capacity of the MISPE cartridges. Recoveries from urine extraction were higher than 70%. It was important to control pH during sample loading. The MISPE method was found to yield a less complex LC-ESI-MS chromatogram of the urine extracts compared with the mixed-mode anion-exchanger method. An LC-ESI-MS method using a Hypercarb LC column with a graphitised carbon stationary phase was also evaluated for organophosphate diesters. LC-ESI-MS using negative-ion detection in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was shown to be linear for diphenyl phosphate in the range 0.08-20 ng muL(-1)

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