Abstract: The proliferation and use of chemical and biological warfare agents has become relevant in our society. Lethal compounds such as Sarin (isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), Soman (pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX (o-ethyl-S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothioate) are highly toxic nerve agents, lethal at low dosages and have been used in the recent past. As the nerve agents are hydrolyzed in the environment, the detection of the degradation product, such as methylphosphonic acid (MPA) has been usually performed for proof of the use of nerve agents. In this work, rapid and specific recognition of MPA was achieved with potentiometric measurements using a chemical sensor fabricated by a surface imprinted polymer (SIP) coupled with nano-scale transducer, indium tin oxide (ITO). An octadecylsiloxane (ODS) thin layer was covalently bound to an ITO-coated glass surface in the presence of MPA. After extraction of MPA, potentiometric measurements showed selective detection of MPA. The selectivity of the sensor has been tested on other alkyl phosphonic acids, such as ethylphosphonic acid (EPA), propylphosphonic acid (PPA), as well as tert-butylphosphonic acid (BPA). The viability of the sensor in the presence of other chemical analogues, such as organophosphorus pesticides and herbicides, was investigated. Furthermore, SIP has been used to construct a chemical sensor for dipicolinic acid (2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, DPA), the major constituent of bacterial endospores, including spores of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax.