Book title: NanoBiosensing: Principles, Development and Applications
Editors: Ju HX, Zhang XJ, Wang J
City: New York
Series title: Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering
Abstract: Accurate, rapid, inexpensive, and selective analysis is required today for use in clinical diagnostics and the food industry. The majority of known electrochemical biosensors are based on immobilized specific biomolecules, such as proteins, enzymes, nuclear acids, antibodies, and antigens on the modified electrodes [1–8]. These resulting biomolecule-based devices usually show high sensitivity and specificity due to the high loading of enzymes on the nanoparticles [9–12]. However, their stability is limited due to easy denaturation  and leakage of biomolecules during their storage and immobilization procedure. Furthermore, the preparation and purification of biomolecules are usually time-consuming and expensive . Therefore, the syntheses of artificial biomolecules with highly catalytic properties and a wide range of practical applications are becoming a significant field for different purposes.