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Reference type: Book Chapter
Authors: Hepel M, Stobiecka M
Publication date: 2012
Chapter title: Detection of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers Using Functional Gold Nanoparticles.
Chapter number: 9
Page numbers: 241-281.
DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-0379-1_9

Book title: Fine Particles in Medicine and Pharmacy
Editors: Matijevic E
Publisher: Springer US
ISBN: 978-1-4614-0379-1

Abstract: Biomarkers of oxidative stress are biomolecules that can be utilized in the diagnosis of diminished capacity of a biological system to counteract an overproduction or invasion of reactive oxygen species and other radicals. In this Chapter, the detection methods of the oxidative stress biomarkers, such as glutathione (GSH), homocysteine (Hcys) and cysteine (Cys), based on their interactions with monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles are described. The nanoparticle utilization in a solution-phase analysis as well as in a multifunctional sensory film preparation is presented. The interactions of AuNP with GSH, a tripeptide maintaining the redox potential level in eukaryotic cells, have been investigated using resonance elastic light scattering (RELS) and plasmonic UV-vis spectroscopy. The high sensitivity of the RELS measurements enables monitoring of ligand exchanges and the biomarker-induced AuNP assembly. The viability of designing simple and rapid assays for the detection of GSH and Hcys is discussed. The surface plasmon band broadening and bathochromic shift are consistent with the biomarker-induced AuNP assembly and corroborate the RELS measurements and HR-TEM imaging. The results of molecular dynamics and quantum mechanical calculations support the mechanism of the formation of GSH- and Hcys-linkages in the interparticle interactions and show that multiple H-bonding can occur. The functionalized gold nanoparticles have also been shown to enhance the design of molecularly-templated conductive polymer films for the detection of biomolecules and to amplify the analytical signal by AuNP labeling. Novel designs of molecularly imprinted orthophenylenediamine (oPD) sensor films are presented. The biolyte-induced assembly of monolayer protected gold nanoparticles is evaluated in view of bioanalytical applications and the design of novel sensory films for molecularly-templated conductive polymers for microsensor arrays
Template and target information: Review - detection of stress biomarkers
Author keywords: Biomarkers of oxidative stress, gold nanoparticles, RELS, Surface plasmon, Molecularly-templated polymer films, Glutathione, homocysteine, Cysteine


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