Abstract: The determination of compounds at a very low level of concentration is still a real analytical challenge in the various application fields. The evolution of the instrumentation in terms of separation and detection has allowed a real improvement in the sensitivity and the analysis time. However, the very low level of concentration and the high degree of complexity of the real matrices still required a step of purification and preconcentration before the chromatographic analysis. Therefore, extraction sorbents based on a molecular recognition mechanism were developed. The use of these supports is dedicated to the selective extraction of a target molecule and its structural analogs to render the quantitative analysis more reliable and sensitive. A possible approach is the use of immunoaffinity supports (immunosorbent) based on the use of specific antibodies of the molecule of interest. The high selectivity and affinity of the antigen-antibody interactions allow a selective clean-up with high enrichment factors. This same mechanism can also be exploited by the use of molecularly imprinted polymers whose synthesis leads to the formation of specific cavities miming the recognition site of an antibody. A third selective sorbent was very recently developed and successfully applied. It consists of the use of aptamers. By comparison of these various approaches, the principles, the advantages and the limitations of these selective extraction tools are presented.
Template and target information: Review - trace analysis
Author keywords: SPE, selective extraction, IS, MIP, Aptamers