Abstract: In review are introduced the main results for preparation and usage of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) which are able to specifically recognize the biologically active compounds, macromolecular biomolecules and cells and viral particles. The principles of producing highly efficient and specific to the respective patterns of molecular imprinted polymers are expounded. Special attention is paid to the questions of the imprinting of highly macromolecular and supramolecular templates. The application fields of molecular imprinted polymers in various spheres of chemistry and molecular biology, such as the selection of the molecules in the individual state, biosensor technology, catalysis, drug delivery are presented. Bibliography - 215 references.