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Reference type: Journal
Authors: Rebelo TSCR, Santos C, Costa-Rodrigues J, Fernandes MH, Noronha JP, Sales MGF
Article Title: Novel Prostate Specific Antigen plastic antibody designed with charged binding sites for an improved protein binding and its application in a biosensor of potentiometric transduction.
Publication date: 2014
Journal: Electrochimica Acta
Volume: 132
Page numbers: 142-150.
DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2014.03.108
Alternative URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013468614006215

Abstract: This work shows that the synthesis of protein plastic antibodies tailored with selected charged monomers around the binding site enhances protein binding. These charged receptor sites are placed over a neutral polymeric matrix, thus inducing a suitable orientation the protein reception to its site. This is confirmed by preparing control materials with neutral monomers and also with non-imprinted template. This concept has been applied here to Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), the protein of choice for screening prostate cancer throughout the population, with serum levels >10 ng/mL pointing out a high probability of associated cancer. Protein Imprinted Materials with charged binding sites (C/PIM) have been produced by surface imprinting over graphene layers to which the protein was first covalently attached. Vinylbenzyl(trimethylammonium chloride) and vinyl benzoate were introduced as charged monomers labelling the binding site and were allowed to self-organize around the protein. The subsequent polymerization was made by radical polymerization of vinylbenzene. Neutral PIM (N/PIM) prepared without oriented charges and non imprinted materials (NIM) obtained without template were used as controls. These materials were used to develop simple and inexpensive potentiometric sensor for PSA. They were included as ionophores in plasticized PVC membranes, and tested over electrodes of solid or liquid conductive contacts, made of conductive carbon over a syringe or of inner reference solution over micropipette tips. The electrodes with charged monomers showed a more stable and sensitive response, with an average slope of -44.2 mV/decade and a detection limit of 5.8 x 10-11 mol/L (2 ng/mL). The corresponding non-imprinted sensors showed lower sensitivity, with average slopes of -24.8 mV/decade. The best sensors were successfully applied to the analysis of serum, with recoveries ranging from 96.9 to 106.1% and relative errors of 6.8%
Template and target information: protein, prostate specific antigen, PSA
Author keywords: Prostate Specific Antigen, Potentiometry, Graphene layers, Ion selective sensors, Molecularly-imprinted polymers, serum

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