Abstract: The basic concept of sample preparation methods is to convert a real matrix into a sample suitable for analysis. This process almost inevitably changes the interactions of compounds with their concrete chemical environment. These interactions are determined by the physical and chemical properties of both analytes and matrices, and they affect the applicability of different sample preparation techniques and analytical methods as well as their efficiency and reproducibility. Hence, characterization of the initial physicochemical state of a sample is a precondition of all further sample-preparation steps. Although many traditional sample-preparation methods are still in use, there have been trends in recent years towards use of smaller initial sample sizes, small volumes or no organic solvents; greater specificity or greater selectivity in extraction; and, increased potential for automation. The objective of this review article is to firstly give an overview of the sample preparation techniques that are applied in different sample matrix. The review will focus on new techniques and technologies, which improve efficiency and coverage of residues. Moreover, these techniques were compared with other sample preparation techniques in line with important analytical figures including their merit with demerit.
Author keywords: Sample preparation techniques, SFE, MAE, MIP