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Reference type: Journal
Authors: Alizadeh T, Shamkhali AN, Hanifehpour Y, Joo SW
Article Title: A Ca2+ selective membrane electrode based on calcium-imprinted polymeric nanoparticles.
Publication date: 2016
Journal: New Journal of Chemistry
Volume: 40
Issue: (10)
Page numbers: 8479-8487.
DOI: 10.1039/C6NJ00582A

Abstract: In this work, a Ca2+ selective PVC-membrane electrode, utilizing nano-sized Ca2+ imprinted polymers as the ionophore, was introduced. The imprinted polymer was prepared by precipitation polymerization in acetonitrile. Various types of commercially available functional monomers including methacrylic acid, acrylic acid and itaconic acid were tested for the synthesis of Ca2+-imprinted polymers. The networked polymers obtained were used as the ionophore of PVC membrane electrodes. The potentiometric responses of the electrodes, prepared using different imprinted polymers, showed that the type of functional monomers used had a crucial effect on the analytical characteristics of the related membrane electrode. The membrane electrode composed of itaconic acid based imprinted polymers showed better Nernstian slope and particularly better selectivity for Ca2+ determination. The effectiveness of itaconic acid for complex formation with Ca2+, in comparison to two other monomers (methacrylic acid and acrylic acid), was demonstrated by density functional theory-based calculations. The type of cross-linker agent had a definitive role in the performance of the related electrode. Divinyl benzene based imprinted polymers led to an electrode with no significant sensitivity for Ca2+; whereas, the utilization of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate led to a sensor with ideally Nernstian response. Other components of the membrane such as the plasticizer and ionic additive as well as the solution pH were evaluated and appropriate conditions were selected. The electrode showed a response time of 10 s with no memory effect. A dynamic linear range of 1 x 10-6-1 x 10-1 mol L-1, a Nernstian slope of 30.3 0.4 mV decade-1 and a detection limit of 7.5 x 10-7 mol L-1 were obtained for the electrode. The utility of the electrode was checked by its use as an indicator electrode in the determination of Ca2+ ions via complexometric titration by EDTA
Template and target information: calcium ion, Ca(II)

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