Abstract: OVERVIEW: The inspection and measurement of things is indispensable to manufacturing activities in order to guarantee that products are manufactured as designed. For inspection and measurement in the manufacturing industry, Hitachi's Research & Development Group has set forth an inspection and measurement technology platform consisting of four core technologies: (1) visual inspection and metrology, (2) nondestructive inspection, (3) chemical measurement and probe imaging, and (4) optical 3D shape measurement. The group for the technology platform is working on developing inspection and measurement technologies designed to handle a variety of objectives. By improving the four core technologies, the group will help improve the quality and ensure the reliability of Hitachi's manufacturing activities, and lead the growth of the inspection and measurement equipment business segment. To illustrate some examples of the development of these core technologies, this article describes technologies for visual inspection of semiconductor wafers, nondestructive inspection, using X-rays and supersonic waves, nano-resolution microscopy, bio-molecular measurement, and optical 3D shape measurement.